First Aid Techniques > CPR First Aid Tips & CPR Resuscitation Techniques
Learn Basics of CPR, Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Techniques. CPR First Aid tips and technique knowledge is invaluable in saving the life of the casualty in times of the emergency. Having the knowledge of CPR can be very crucial when the trained person is not available.
The blood is oxygenated by breathing and is circulated around the body by the beating of the heart. If the body’s natural mechanisms of breathing and heartbeat break down, it is essential to resuscitate the casualty by taking over the ventilation and circulation, through artificial ventilation and chest compressions respectively. This restores the supply of oxygen to the brain. The priority in treating any casualty is to establish and maintain effective breathing and circulation. The sequence of techniques used to sustain life in the absence of spontaneous breathing and a heartbeat is known as Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).
Restoring Breathing and Circulation
When breathing stops, blowing air into the lungs can give enough oxygen to keep a person alive. In mouth-to-mouth ventilation, pinch the nose so that air cannot escape. The heart must be beating to circulate the oxygenated blood. If it is not beating, give chest compressions.
If the heart stops beating, blood does not circulate and the brain is starved of oxygen, so the heart needs mechanical help. By pressing down rhythmically, at about 100 compressions per minute, on the lower half of the breastbone, blood is driven from the heart. When pressure is released, the chest returns to its normal position, and blood refills the heart. To oxygenate blood, this must be done with artificial ventilation.
ABC of Resuscitation
A is for AIRWAY
Tilting the casualty’s head back and lifting the chin will “open the airway”. The tilted position lifts the casualty’s tongue from the back of the throat so that it does not block the air passage.
B is for BREATHING
If a casualty is not breathing, you can breathe for him, and thus oxygenate the blood, by giving “artificial ventilation”: blowing your own exhaled air into the casualty’s lungs.
C is for CIRCULATION
If the heart stops, you can apply “chest compressions” to force blood through the heart and around the body. You must combine these with artificial ventilation so that the blood is oxygenated.
To assess and treat a casualty who has collapsed, use the following Resuscitation Techniques. If breathing and pulse return at any point, place the casualty in recovery position.
On discovering a collapsed casualty, one should first establish whether he is conscious or unconscious. Ask a simple question or give a simple command, speak loudly and clearly, close to the casualty’s ear. If the casualty does not respond, try gently shaking his shoulders. A fully unconscious casualty will make no response at all. The casualty may respond to pain; try gently pinching the skin. A casualty who is only partially conscious may mumble, groan or make slight movements.
If a collapsed casualty does respond to you, keep a check on him until he recovers or help arrives, as he may drift in and out of consciousness. Always assume there are head or neck injuries; handle the head carefully and shake the shoulders very gently.
The AVPU CODE
There are different degrees of impaired awareness. You should assess the casualty quickly by suing the AVPU CODE:
V responds to Voice
P responds to Pain
Eyes: Do they remain closed?
Speech: Does the casualty respond to the questions you ask?
Movement: Does the casualty obey commands? Does he respond to a painful stimulus, such as pinching?
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